In a world of Google and Amazon, libraries rethink their role

More information is available online than ever. Libraries are stepping in to make sure everyone can access it.

One night a few years ago, Tony Marx was closing up a Bronx library when he noticed a kid sitting on the steps. The boy was pecking away on the oldest laptop Marx had ever seen. Puzzled, Marx asked him what he was doing.

The boy told Marx he was doing his math homework. The assignment was online and the boy's family couldn't afford broadband at home. So the youngster camped out on the library stoop to pick up its leaked signal.....


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Founded in 1800, the Library of Congress is America’s oldest federal cultural institution.

2. Founded in 1800, the Library of Congress is America’s oldest federal cultural institution.





The Library of Congress is home to an eclectic collection, with books ranging in size from a tiny copy of “Ole King Cole” to a 5-foot-by-7-foot photo book filled with color images of Bhutan.







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28 Digital Initiative of Government of India in Higher Education




1. SWAYAM  ( Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds)



Under the ‘Digital India’ Initiative of Government of India, one of the thrust area is ‘Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs)’.MHRD, Government of India has embarked on a major initiative called ‘Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds’ (SWAYAM), to provide an integrated platform and portal for online.


Official website   

Official Mobile App 



The SWAYAM PRABHA is a group of 32 DTH channels devoted to telecasting of high-quality educational programmes on 24X7  basis using the GSAT-15 satellite. Every day, there will be new content for at least (4) hours which would be repeated 5 more times in a day, allowing the students to choose the time of their convenience. The channels are uplinked from BISAG, Gandhinagar. The contents are provided by NPTEL, IITs, UGC, CEC, IGNOU, NCERT and NIOS. The INFLIBNET Centre maintains the web portal.


Official website  

Official Mobile App (android)


 3. National Academic Depository (NAD)




 The vision of National Academic Depository (NAD) is born out of an initiative to provide an online store house of all academic awards. National Academic Depository (NAD) is a 24X7 online store house of all academic awards viz.certificates, diplomas, degrees, mark-sheets etc. duly digitised and lodged by academic institutions / boards / eligibility assessment bodies. NAD not only ensures easy access to and retrieval of an academic award but also validates and guarantees its authenticity and safe storage. National Academic Depository comprises of two interoperable digital depositories viz. CDSL Ventures Limited (CVL) and NSDL Database Management Limited (NDML). These digital depositories have ensured hardware, network facilities and software of  prescribed quality for smooth and secured operationalisation of NAD.

Official website  

4.National Digital Library of India (NDL India)

ndlNational Digital Library of India (NDL India) is an all-digital library that stores information (metadata) about different types of digital contents including books, articles, videos, audios, thesis and other educational materials relevant for users from varying educational levels and capabilities. It provides a single-window search facility to access digital contents currently existing in India as well as other digital sources under a single umbrella.

Official website    

Official Mobile App  



 5.E-Shodh Sindhu (eSS)

 essThe MHRD has formed e-Shodh Sindhu merging three consortia initiatives, namely UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium, NLIST and INDEST-AICTE Consortium to provide access to peer-reviewed journals and a number of bibliographic, citation and factual databases in different disciplines to the Research and academic community in the country.

Official website  



 6.Virtual Labs


vlVirtual Labs project is an initiative of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India under the aegis of National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT). This project is a consortium activity of twelve participating institutes and IIT Delhi is coordinating institute. It is a paradigm shift in ICT-based education. For the first time, such an initiative has been taken-up in remote‐experimentation. Under Virtual Labs project, over 100 Virtual Labs consisting of approximately 700+ web-enabled experiments were designed for remote-operation and viewing.

Official website     


7. e-Yantra


eyanProject e-Yantra is an initiative to spread education in Embedded systems and Robotics by IIT Bombay sponsored by Ministry of Human Resource Development through the National Mission on Education through ICT (NMEICT). This project was conceptualized by Prof. Kavi Arya and Prof. Krithi Ramamritham of the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at IIT Bombay.

Official website   




8. Talk to a Teacher program 


talkA-VIEW is part of Talk to a Teacher program coordinated by IIT Bombay and we are funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) under the Indian Government’s National Mission for Education using Information and Communication Technology (NME-ICT) along with various other projects in Virtual Labs, Haptics and Natural Language Processing. A-VIEW is now deployed at several IITs, NITs and other leading educational institutions across the nation. 










9. E-acharya

Integrated e-Content Portal

earchA portal to host all e-content project, developed/funded under the National Mission of Education through ICT. There are more than 70 projects on e-content under NME-ICT which are developed/being developed in various subject disciplines (Science, Arts, Engineering, Social Sciences, etc.) through various Indian institutes/universities/colleges. The portal would provide facility to search and browse all hosted content wherein a learner can easily access the desired material including audio/video learning material, textual material, multimedia enriched materials etc. through a single interface. Moreover, features of faceted search, syllabus-based search, usage statistics, personalized learning experience with provision for "my account" and "my space", etc. would be incorporated in this portal.

Official website    






dcrseThis project on 'Creating Digital-learning Environment for Design' also called 'e-kalpa' is sponsored by the Ministry of Human Resources, Government of India as part of the National Mission in Education through Information and Communication Technology. 










11.FOSSEE (Free/Libre and Open Source Software in Education)

fossesFOSSEE (Free/Libre and Open Source Software in Education) project promotes the use of FLOSS tools to improve the quality of education in our country. We aim to reduce dependency on proprietary software in educational institutions. We encourage the use of FLOSS tools through various activities to ensure commercial software is replaced by equivalent FLOSS tools. We also develop new FLOSS tools and upgrade existing tools to meet requirements in academia and research. 
The FOSSEE project is part of the National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Ministry of HumanResource Development (MHRD), Government of India. 




12. Vidwan

evidVIDWAN is the premier database of profiles of scientists / researchers and other faculty members working at leading academic institutions and other R & D organisation involved in teaching and research in India. It provides important information about expert's background, contact address, experience, scholarly publications, skills and accomplishments, researcher identity, etc. The database developed and maintained by Information and Library Network Centre (INFLIBNET) with financial support from the National Mission on Education through ICT (NME-ICT). The database would be instrumental in selection of panels of experts for various committees, taskforce, established by the Ministries / Govt. establishments for monitoring and evaluation purposes. 


 13.Spoken Tutorial 


spokThe Spoken Tutorial project is the initiative of the ‘Talk to a Teacher’ activity of the National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT), launched by the Ministry of Human Resources and Development, Government of India. 

Spoken Tutorial is a multi-award winning educational content portal.  Here one can learn various Free and Open Source Software all by oneself.  Our self-paced, multi-lingual courses ensure that anybody with a computer and a desire for learning, can learn from any place, at any time and in a language of their choice.  All the content published on this website are shared under the CC BY SA license.  

The Spoken Tutorial project is being developed at IIT Bombay for MHRD, Government of India. 



baadalBaadal: A MHRD initiative developed as NME-ICT Cloud for academic purpose. 

Baadal is a cloud orchestration and virtualization management software initiated by MHRD under NMEICT scheme and developed and maintained by IIT Delhi. It ensures optimum utilization of the infrastructure and speeds up the development and deployment of eGov applications for academic needs.

It is hosted in NIC data-centre. Some of the main features of Baadal are:

  • Dynamic resource scheduling and power management.
  • An integrated workflow system for request and commissioning of virtual machines.
  • Facilities for suspendresumeshutdownpower offpower on and specifying resource requirement of virtual machines.
  • Dynamic resource utilization monitoring.

Under this project, we help government and semi Government institutes to accommodate their infrastructure needs without taking care of management issues.

As Baadal is open source project, we help institutes to setup their private cloud. 



 15.Global Initiative of Academic Networks (GIAN)

GIANGovt. of India approved a new program titled Global Initiative of Academic Networks (GIAN) in Higher Education aimed at tapping the talent pool of scientists and entrepreneurs, internationally to encourage their engagement with the institutes of Higher Education in India so as to augment the country's existing academic resources, accelerate the pace of quality reform, and elevate India's scientific and technological capacity to global excellence.

In order to garner the best international experience into our systems of education, enable interaction of students and faculty with the best academic and industry experts from all over the world and also share their experiences and expertise to motivate people to work on Indian problems, there is a need for a Scheme of International Summer and Winter Term. During the 'Retreat' of IITs with Minister of Human Resource Development Smt. Smriti Zubin Irani on 29th June, 2014 at Goa, it was decided that "A system of Guest Lectures by internationally and nationally renowned experts would be evolved along with a comprehensive Faculty Development Programme not only for new IITs, IIMs, IISERs but also other institutions in the country. 



 16. National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF)

NIRFThe National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) was approved by the MHRD and launched by Honourable Minister of Human Resource Development on 29th September 2015.

This framework outlines a methodology to rank institutions across the country. The methodology draws from the overall recommendations broad understanding arrived at by a Core Committee set up by MHRD, to identify the broad parameters for ranking various universities and institutions. The parameters broadly cover “Teaching, Learning and Resources,” “Research and Professional Practices,” “Graduation Outcomes,” “Outreach and Inclusivity,” and “Perception”.

India Rankings – 2016 based on this framework were released on 4th April 2016.


17. IMPRINT- (IMPacting Research INnovation and Technology)

IMPRINTIMPRINT is the first of its kind MHRD supported Pan-IIT + IISc joint initiative to address the major science and engineering challenges that India must address and champion to enable, empower and embolden the nation for inclusive growth and self-reliance. This novel initiative with twofold mandate is aimed at:

(a) Developing new engineering education policy
(b) Creating a road map to pursue engineering challenges

IMPRINT provides the overarching vision that guides research into areas that are predominantly socially relevant.




18. SAKSHAT: A One Stop Education Portal

SAKSHATThe pilot project SAKSHAT: A One Stop Education Portal launched on October 30, 2006 by His Excellency, the then President of India to facilitate lifelong learning for students, teachers and those in employment or in pursuit of knowledge free of cost to them. The content development task for ‘SAKSHAT’ was looked after by the Content Advisory Committee (CAC) for the respective subject, which consisted of representatives from educational institutions like IGNOU, Delhi University, Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangthan (KVS), Navodyaya Vidyalaya Sangthan (NVS), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) and National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and prominent academicians in the field. In addition, some NGOs had also provided the contents developed by them free of cost for this portal.

The vision is to scale up this pilot project ‘SAKSHAT’ to cater to the learning needs of more than 50 crore people through a proposed scheme of ‘National Mission in Education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The scheme is to provide connectivity to all institutions of higher learning to world of knowledge in the cyber space, to leverage the potential of ICT, in providing high quality knowledge modules with right e-contents, to address to the personalized needs of learners, in order to take care of their aspirations. These modules are to be delivered through ‘SAKSHAT’. The scheme may also have a provision of certification of competencies of the human resources acquired through formal or non-formal means as also to develop and maintain the database of profile of human resources.



 19.Atal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA)

ARIIAAtal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA) is an initiative of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Govt. of India to systematically rank all major higher educational institutions and universities in India on indicators related to “Innovation and Entrepreneurship Development” amongst students and faculties.

Major Indicators for consideration

Assessment of innovation and startup ecosystem in HEIs will be based on Seven parameters with certain weightages allocated as below.

  • Budget, Expenses to Support & Revenue Generated   (20 Marks).
  • Infrastructures & Facilities to Support Innovations and Start-ups   (10 Marks).
  • Awareness Activities for Promoting Idea Generation and Innovation   (20 Marks).
  • Promotion and Supporting Entrepreneurship Development   (20 Marks).
  • Intellectual Property (IP) Generation, Technology Transfer and Commercialization   (14 Marks).
  • Innovative Learning Methods & Courses   (10 Marks).
  • Innovations in Governance of the Institution   (6 Marks).












21. DigiLocker

DIGIDigiLocker is a platform for issuance and verification of documents & certificates in a digital way, thus eliminating the use of physical documents. Indian citizens who sign up for a DigiLocker account get a dedicated cloud storage space that is linked to their Aadhaar (UIDAI) number. Organizations that are registered with Digital Locker can push electronic copies of documents and certificates (e.g. driving license, Voter ID, School certificates) directly into citizens lockers. Citizens can also upload scanned copies of their legacy documents in their accounts. These legacy documents can be electronically signed using the eSign facility.

The main technology components of the DigiLocker system are:
  • Repository: Collection of e-documents that is exposed via standard APIs for secure, real-time access.
  • Access Gateway: Secure online mechanism for requesters to access e-documents from various repositories in real-time using URI (Uniform Resource Indicator).
  • DigiLocker Portal: Dedicated cloud based personal storage space, linked to each resident’s Aadhaar for storing e-documents, or URIs of e-documents. 


22. The National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL)


NPTELThe National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) was initiated by seven Indian Institutes of Technology (Bombay, Delhi, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras, Guwahati and Roorkee) along with the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore in 2003. Five core disciplines were identified, namely, civil engineering, computer science and engineering, electrical engineering, electronics and communication engineering and mechanical engineering and 235 courses in web/video format were developed in this phase.

The main goal of NPTEL Phase II (2009-14) was to build on the engineering and core science courses launched previously in NPTEL Phase I. An additional 600 web and video courses were created in all major branches of engineering, physical sciences at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels and management courses at the postgraduate level. Several improvements such as indexing of all video and web courses and keyword search were implemented. 


23. OSCAR (Open Source Courseware Animations Repository)

OSKARProject OSCAR (Open Source Courseware Animations Repository) provides a repository of web-based interactive animations and simulations, that we refer to as learning objects (LOs). These learning objects span topics in science and engineering at the college level, and maths and science at the school level. Students and teachers can view, run and download these learning objects. 









24. ShodhGangotri

SHOD“ShodhGangotri”, research scholars / research supervisors in universities are requested to deposit electronic version of approved synopsis submitted by research scholars to the universities for registering themselves for the Ph.D programme. The repository on one hand, would reveal the trends and directions of research being conducted in Indian universities, on the other hand it would avoid duplication of research. Synopsis in “ShodhGangotri” would later be mapped to full-text theses in "ShodhGanga". As such, once the full-text thesis is submitted for a synopsis, a link to the full-text theses would be provided from ShodhGangotri to "ShodhGanga" 





25. Virtual Learning Environment


VLEVLE, an online environment of e-resources caters to several disciplines taught at undergraduate and postgraduate level. It is an initiative of Institute of Life-Long Learning, University of Delhi. Conceived in 2012, VLE today boasts state of art material that addresses emerging needs of a diverse student body, not only of Delhi University but other universities as well. Drawing from several successful Moodle models, the multi-media interactive contents loaded on VLE are categorized discipline-wise. 

The lessons are developed by highly qualified faculty members across the universities and are continually edited and reviewed, primarily by discipline-expert Fellows employed to edit, oversee and coordinate the content. The content goes through several levels of rigorous peer reviewing and academic vetting to ensure quality and standardization. VLE also contains multimedia repository in form of audio, video and short films to expose students to new technologies in pedagogy. 


26.Text Transcription of Video content


tesxtThe text of video lectures has been obtained through manual processes and is therefore error-prone. There is no claim to accuracy on the text content provided in this site. We are working with many professors to correct their lecture transcripts so that they can become both verbatim transcripts as well as readable text help for those who have bandwidth limitations and cannot download full video courses. An audio file (mp3 format) is provided as download along with the transcript of each file. The transcribed files given as pdf are also being used to provide subtitles to the video (in English) and can be used in the future for providing local language translations. Please see the subtitles in the NPTEL website.

The text will be used to create metadata and search index and the time coding on the video will be used to provide markers on the video for easy search of the video content. These are activities in progress. The project to provide transcription of all videos published by NPTEL (currently more than 11,500 hours and will likely swell to about 20,000 hours in a year or so) is an on-going project and delays are unavoidable. 



27. SOS Tools 

sosSoftware and simulation packages are useful tools for the analysis of systems and solving problems by the students of Science, Social Science, Engineering, Management and related disciplines. Many commercial software packages are available for the above. But many of these software packages are quite costly and require yearly license fee for updates and maintenance. Many open source softwares are available which can perform similar functions but are not user friendly and do not have proper documentation. Beside these, adequate manpower to teach students to use these packages are not available.

The objective of this project is to develop software tools for analysis of systems and computations, create adequate manpower to teach students to use open source software and to develop simulation tools. The developed software should be user friendly and properly documented. Such packages, tailored to suit the needs of our students will be ported on Sakshat for making freely available to any student, teacher or institution willing to use them. 



28. e-PG Pathshala


epge-PG Pathshala is an initiative of the MHRD under its National Mission on Education through ICT (NME-ICT) being executed by the UGC. The content and its quality being the key component of education system, high quality, curriculum-based, interactive e-content in 70 subjects across all disciplines of social sciences, arts, fine arts and humanities, natural & mathematical sciences, linguistics and languages have been developed by the subject experts working in Indian universities and other R & D institutes across the country. Every subject had a team of principal investigator, paper coordinators, content writers, content reviewers, Language editors and multimedia team. 
























































































Article 13: EU passes controversial new copyright law

 that will affect internet as we know it; will it impact India?



In a final vote, the European Parliament has passed the controversial new Copyright Directive, which impacts the linking to news as well as the publication of copyrighted content by intermediaries. This directive includes Article 11 which has been called as the 'link tax' and Article 13 which has been called the 'upload filter', 'meme killer', among other things.

As per this reportthe EU Parliament voted 348 votes in favour and 274 against the Directive. Around 36 voters remained absent.

The next step, based on the EU procedure, will be the finalisation of the text of the law by the European Council, followed by the publication of the final text in the Official Journal of the EU, following which each national government in the EU will enact individual laws implementing the directive.



What is Article 13?

The primary provision of the new law that creates these concerns is Article 13, which impacts the provision of access to copyrighted content by ‘information society service providers’. This term refers to most intermediaries, like YouTube, Google, etc. Officially, it refers to a service provider providing a service, at a distance, by electronic means, and at the individual request of the recipient of services (Article 1(2) of EU Directive on Information Society Services). In addition to Article 13, another provision creating concern is Article 11, which protects press publications (also known as the ‘link law’) and impacts activities such as Google News linking to news articles.

The fundamental requirement of Article 13 is that any service providers who provide access to copyrighted content online, must ensure that proper licenses to such works are obtained from the owners of the copyright. This would apply to any kind of copyrighted content, be it audio, video, written materials, software code, photographs, etc. The law, further, requires the service providers to adopt methods to either verify that such agreements are in place or to prevent the upload of content where this is not possible. The aim of the law is to ensure that copyright owners receive a proper share of the revenues earned by such service providers and others through the use of their content.

Impact globally and for India

Since this is an EU law, its impact is territorially limited to the EU, and its main impact will be for the provision of access to such content, by service providers, within the EU. India and other countries, however, will not be completely immune from its effects, since the global nature of the internet means that many in these countries will have a European base, which they cannot afford to lose.

An example is of content creators with a large European audience, who will now have to ensure that any content they create does not fall afoul of the systems adopted by the tech companies to deal with the content they host. Similarly, any Indian hosting provider, app, website, or other service provider that provides access to online content, will have to ensure compliance with the new law in relation to the content that can be accessed in the EU.

Such persons or the tech companies may thus need to differentiate between content that can be accessed from the EU and content accessed from elsewhere. Apart from this, if the tech companies decide to implement the technologies like content filters at a global level, as opposed to an EU level, then any content uploaded anywhere will meet with the same issue.


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Digitization Cost Calculator

Welcome to the Digitization Cost Calculator. Please begin by entering the number of scans (or images captured) for which you need to estimate costs and time. In the next step you will enter staffing data. In step three you will identify the processes for which you'd like time estimates, as well as which level of staff are performing each process so that costs can be estimated. This calculator does not store or share any data that you enter. Calculations are based on contributed community data. See the raw data here. Contribute your own data here.


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